Semantic conventions for database client calls

Status: Experimental

Span kind: MUST always be CLIENT.

The span name SHOULD be set to a low cardinality value representing the statement executed on the database. It MAY be a stored procedure name (without arguments), DB statement without variable arguments, operation name, etc. Since SQL statements may have very high cardinality even without arguments, SQL spans SHOULD be named the following way, unless the statement is known to be of low cardinality: <db.operation> <db.name>.<db.sql.table>, provided that db.operation and db.sql.table are available. If db.sql.table is not available due to its semantics, the span SHOULD be named <db.operation> <db.name>. It is not recommended to attempt any client-side parsing of db.statement just to get these properties, they should only be used if the library being instrumented already provides them. When it’s otherwise impossible to get any meaningful span name, db.name or the tech-specific database name MAY be used.

Connection-level attributes

These attributes will usually be the same for all operations performed over the same database connection. Some database systems may allow a connection to switch to a different db.user, for example, and other database systems may not even have the concept of a connection at all.

AttributeTypeDescriptionExamplesRequired
db.systemstringAn identifier for the database management system (DBMS) product being used. See below for a list of well-known identifiers.other_sqlYes
db.connection_stringstringThe connection string used to connect to the database. It is recommended to remove embedded credentials.Server=(localdb)\v11.0;Integrated Security=true;No
db.userstringUsername for accessing the database.readonly_user; reporting_userNo
net.peer.ipstringRemote address of the peer (dotted decimal for IPv4 or RFC5952 for IPv6)127.0.0.1See below.
net.peer.namestringRemote hostname or similar, see note below. [1]example.comSee below.
net.peer.portintRemote port number.80; 8080; 443Conditional [2]
net.transportstringTransport protocol used. See note below.ip_tcpConditional [3]

[1]: net.peer.name SHOULD NOT be set if capturing it would require an extra DNS lookup.

[2]: Required if using a port other than the default port for this DBMS.

[3]: Recommended in general, required for in-process databases ("inproc").

Additional attribute requirements: At least one of the following sets of attributes is required:

db.system has the following list of well-known values. If one of them applies, then the respective value MUST be used, otherwise a custom value MAY be used.

ValueDescription
other_sqlSome other SQL database. Fallback only. See notes.
mssqlMicrosoft SQL Server
mysqlMySQL
oracleOracle Database
db2IBM Db2
postgresqlPostgreSQL
redshiftAmazon Redshift
hiveApache Hive
cloudscapeCloudscape
hsqldbHyperSQL DataBase
progressProgress Database
maxdbSAP MaxDB
hanadbSAP HANA
ingresIngres
firstsqlFirstSQL
edbEnterpriseDB
cacheInterSystems Caché
adabasAdabas (Adaptable Database System)
firebirdFirebird
derbyApache Derby
filemakerFileMaker
informixInformix
instantdbInstantDB
interbaseInterBase
mariadbMariaDB
netezzaNetezza
pervasivePervasive PSQL
pointbasePointBase
sqliteSQLite
sybaseSybase
teradataTeradata
verticaVertica
h2H2
coldfusionColdFusion IMQ
cassandraApache Cassandra
hbaseApache HBase
mongodbMongoDB
redisRedis
couchbaseCouchbase
couchdbCouchDB
cosmosdbMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB
dynamodbAmazon DynamoDB
neo4jNeo4j
geodeApache Geode
elasticsearchElasticsearch
memcachedMemcached
cockroachdbCockroachDB

Notes and well-known identifiers for db.system

The list above is a non-exhaustive list of well-known identifiers to be specified for db.system.

If a value defined in this list applies to the DBMS to which the request is sent, this value MUST be used. If no value defined in this list is suitable, a custom value MUST be provided. This custom value MUST be the name of the DBMS in lowercase and without a version number to stay consistent with existing identifiers.

It is encouraged to open a PR towards this specification to add missing values to the list, especially when instrumentations for those missing databases are written. This allows multiple instrumentations for the same database to be aligned and eases analyzing for backends.

The value other_sql is intended as a fallback and MUST only be used if the DBMS is known to be SQL-compliant but the concrete product is not known to the instrumentation. If the concrete DBMS is known to the instrumentation, its specific identifier MUST be used.

Back ends could, for example, use the provided identifier to determine the appropriate SQL dialect for parsing the db.statement.

When additional attributes are added that only apply to a specific DBMS, its identifier SHOULD be used as a namespace in the attribute key as for the attributes in the sections below.

Connection-level attributes for specific technologies

AttributeTypeDescriptionExamplesRequired
db.jdbc.driver_classnamestringThe fully-qualified class name of the Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) driver used to connect.org.postgresql.Driver; com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriverNo
db.mssql.instance_namestringThe Microsoft SQL Server instance name connecting to. This name is used to determine the port of a named instance. [1]MSSQLSERVERNo

[1]: If setting a db.mssql.instance_name, net.peer.port is no longer required (but still recommended if non-standard).

Call-level attributes

These attributes may be different for each operation performed, even if the same connection is used for multiple operations. Usually only one db.name will be used per connection though.

AttributeTypeDescriptionExamplesRequired
db.namestringThis attribute is used to report the name of the database being accessed. For commands that switch the database, this should be set to the target database (even if the command fails). [1]customers; mainRequired, if applicable.
db.statementstringThe database statement being executed. [2]SELECT * FROM wuser_table; SET mykey "WuValue"Conditional [3]
db.operationstringThe name of the operation being executed, e.g. the MongoDB command name such as findAndModify, or the SQL keyword. [4]findAndModify; HMSET; SELECTRequired, if db.statement is not applicable.

[1]: In some SQL databases, the database name to be used is called “schema name”. In case there are multiple layers that could be considered for database name (e.g. Oracle instance name and schema name), the database name to be used is the more specific layer (e.g. Oracle schema name).

[2]: The value may be sanitized to exclude sensitive information.

[3]: Required if applicable and not explicitly disabled via instrumentation configuration.

[4]: When setting this to an SQL keyword, it is not recommended to attempt any client-side parsing of db.statement just to get this property, but it should be set if the operation name is provided by the library being instrumented. If the SQL statement has an ambiguous operation, or performs more than one operation, this value may be omitted.

For Redis, the value provided for db.statement SHOULD correspond to the syntax of the Redis CLI. If, for example, the HMSET command is invoked, "HMSET myhash field1 'Hello' field2 'World'" would be a suitable value for db.statement.

In CouchDB, db.operation should be set to the HTTP method + the target REST route according to the API reference documentation. For example, when retrieving a document, db.operation would be set to (literally, i.e., without replacing the placeholders with concrete values): GET /{db}/{docid}.

In Cassandra, db.name SHOULD be set to the keyspace name.

In HBase, db.name SHOULD be set to the HBase namespace.

Call-level attributes for specific technologies

AttributeTypeDescriptionExamplesRequired
db.redis.database_indexintThe index of the database being accessed as used in the SELECT command, provided as an integer. To be used instead of the generic db.name attribute.0; 1; 15Conditional [1]
db.mongodb.collectionstringThe collection being accessed within the database stated in db.name.customers; productsYes
db.sql.tablestringThe name of the primary table that the operation is acting upon, including the database name (if applicable). [2]public.users; customersRecommended if available.

[1]: Required, if other than the default database (0).

[2]: It is not recommended to attempt any client-side parsing of db.statement just to get this property, but it should be set if it is provided by the library being instrumented. If the operation is acting upon an anonymous table, or more than one table, this value MUST NOT be set.

Cassandra

Separated for clarity.

AttributeTypeDescriptionExamplesRequired
db.cassandra.page_sizeintThe fetch size used for paging, i.e. how many rows will be returned at once.5000No
db.cassandra.consistency_levelstringThe consistency level of the query. Based on consistency values from CQL.allNo
db.cassandra.tablestringThe name of the primary table that the operation is acting upon, including the keyspace name (if applicable). [1]mytableRecommended if available.
db.cassandra.idempotencebooleanWhether or not the query is idempotent.No
db.cassandra.speculative_execution_countintThe number of times a query was speculatively executed. Not set or 0 if the query was not executed speculatively.0; 2No
db.cassandra.coordinator.idstringThe ID of the coordinating node for a query.be13faa2-8574-4d71-926d-27f16cf8a7afNo
db.cassandra.coordinator.dcstringThe data center of the coordinating node for a query.us-west-2No

[1]: This mirrors the db.sql.table attribute but references cassandra rather than sql. It is not recommended to attempt any client-side parsing of db.statement just to get this property, but it should be set if it is provided by the library being instrumented. If the operation is acting upon an anonymous table, or more than one table, this value MUST NOT be set.

Examples

MySQL

KeyValue
Span name"SELECT ShopDb.orders"
db.system"mysql"
db.connection_string"Server=shopdb.example.com;Database=ShopDb;Uid=billing_user;TableCache=true;UseCompression=True;MinimumPoolSize=10;MaximumPoolSize=50;"
db.user"billing_user"
net.peer.name"shopdb.example.com"
net.peer.ip"192.0.2.12"
net.peer.port3306
net.transport"IP.TCP"
db.name"ShopDb"
db.statement"SELECT * FROM orders WHERE order_id = 'o4711'"
db.operation"SELECT"
db.sql.table"orders"

Redis

In this example, Redis is connected using a unix domain socket and therefore the connection string and net.peer.ip are left out. Furthermore, db.name is not specified as there is no database name in Redis and db.redis.database_index is set instead.

KeyValue
Span name"HMSET myhash"
db.system"redis"
db.connection_stringnot set
db.usernot set
net.peer.name"/tmp/redis.sock"
net.transport"Unix"
db.namenot set
db.statement"HMSET myhash field1 'Hello' field2 'World"
db.operationnot set
db.redis.database_index15

MongoDB

KeyValue
Span name"products.findAndModify"
db.system"mongodb"
db.connection_stringnot set
db.user"the_user"
net.peer.name"mongodb0.example.com"
net.peer.ip"192.0.2.14"
net.peer.port27017
net.transport"IP.TCP"
db.name"shopDb"
db.statementnot set
db.operation"findAndModify"
db.mongodb.collection"products"